What are the three major eye diseases?

The most common eye diseases and vision loss conditions are macular degeneration, glaucoma and retinal detachment. Refractive errors are the most common eye problems in the United States. Refractive errors include myopia (myopia), farsightedness (farsightedness), astigmatism (distorted vision at all distances) and presbyopia that occurs between the ages of 40 and 50 (loss of ability to focus closely, inability to read the letters in the telephone book, need to hold the newspaper more far away to see clearly) can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses or, in some cases, with surgery. The National Eye Institute says adequate refractive correction could improve vision among 150 million Americans.

Learn more about refractive errors, external icon Macular degeneration, often called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is an eye disorder associated with aging and causes acute and central vision damage. Central vision is needed to see objects clearly and for common daily tasks, such as reading and driving. DMAE affects the macula, the central part of the retina that allows the eye to see fine details. There are two forms of AMD: wet and dry.

Learn more about age-related macular degeneration, external icon Cataract is an opacity of the lens of the eye and is the leading cause of blindness worldwide and the leading cause of vision loss in the United States. Cataracts can occur at any age due to a variety of causes and can be present from birth. While treatment for cataract removal is widely available, barriers to access, such as insurance coverage, treatment costs, patient choice, or lack of knowledge, prevent many people from receiving appropriate treatment. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes.

It is the leading cause of blindness in American adults. It is characterized by progressive damage to the blood vessels of the retina, the light-sensitive tissue in the back of the eye that is necessary for good vision. DR progresses through four stages, mild non-proliferative retinopathy (microaneurysms), moderate non-proliferative retinopathy (obstruction of some retinal vessels), severe non-proliferative retinopathy (more vessels are blocked and the retina is deprived of blood supply, causing new vessels to grow blood), and proliferative retinopathy (more advanced stage). Diabetic retinopathy usually affects both eyes.

Learn more about diabetic retinopathy, external icon Glaucoma is a group of diseases that can damage the eye's optic nerve and cause vision loss and blindness. Glaucoma occurs when the normal fluid pressure inside the eyes increases slowly. However, recent findings now show that glaucoma can occur with normal eye pressure. With early treatment, you can often protect your eyes from severe vision loss.

There are two main categories: open-angle glaucoma and closed-angle glaucoma. Open angle is a chronic condition that progresses slowly over a long period of time without the person noticing loss of vision until the disease is very advanced, which is why it is called a “sneaky eye thief”. The closure of the angle may appear suddenly and is painful. Visual loss can progress rapidly; however, pain and discomfort lead patients to seek medical attention before permanent damage occurs.

Amblyopia, also known as “lazy eye”, is the most common cause of visual impairment in children. Amblyopia is the medical term used when vision in one eye decreases because the eye and brain don't work properly together. The eye itself looks normal, but it's not used normally because the brain favors the other eye. Conditions that lead to amblyopia include strabismus, an imbalance in the position of both eyes; more myopia, farsightedness, or astigmatics in one eye than in the other; and, rarely, other eye conditions, such as cataracts.

Unless successfully treated in early childhood, amblyopia usually persists into adulthood and is the most common cause of permanent single-eye visual impairment in children and young and middle aged adults. It is estimated that between 2% and 3% of the population suffers from amblyopia. Strabismus involves an imbalance in the position of both eyes. Strabismus can cause the eyes to cross (esotropy) or turn outward (exotropy).

Strabismus is caused by a lack of coordination between the eyes. As a result, the eyes look in different directions and do not focus simultaneously on a single point. In most cases of strabismus in children, the cause is unknown. In more than half of these cases, the problem occurs at birth or soon after (congenital strabismus).

When the two eyes do not focus on the same image, there is reduced or no depth perception and the brain can learn to ignore the entrance of an eye, resulting in a permanent loss of vision in that eye (a type of amblyopia). Some eye problems are minor and don't last long. However, some can cause permanent vision loss. More than 10 million people in the U.S.

UU. will experience macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). There are more cases of macular degeneration than of cataracts and glaucoma combined. Macular degeneration occurs when the central part of the retina, known as the macula, is damaged over time.

Macular degeneration is currently an incurable eye disease. Glaucoma occurs when the eye's optic nerve is damaged, usually due to fluid buildup and increased pressure from the inside. This prevents the optic nerve from sending images to the brain. The build-up of pressure can cause permanent vision loss if it continues for longer without treatment.

Glaucoma progresses relatively quickly and can leave victims blind in just a few years. The most important symptoms of glaucoma include tunnel vision, loss of peripheral vision, blurred eyes, halos around the eyes and redness of the eyes. There is a wide variation in the number of people affected by dry eye syndrome, with estimates ranging from 5% to 50%, depending on different parts of the world. People who wear contact lenses are at risk of getting their eyes dry.

It also occurs due to old age. This is a rare condition when the retina detaches from its place in the eye. It can occur gradually as small areas rupture before the entire retina is detached. This will affect a person's vision and the longer they suffer from it, the greater their chances of complete vision loss in the affected eye.

Although the process seems painful, patients usually don't feel any pain during retinal detachment. See an eye doctor right away if you have a sudden change in vision, if everything looks dim, or if you see flashes of light. Depending on the type of glaucoma (open-angle, normal tension, or low blood pressure), symptoms may include gradual loss of peripheral vision, tunnel vision, severe eye pain, nausea and vomiting, blurred vision, halos, and red eyes. Some patients may experience subtle but constant eye irritation, others may suffer significant inflammation that leads to scarring of the front surface of the eye.

Cataracts are a clouding of the lens of the eye and is the leading cause of blindness worldwide and the leading cause of vision loss in the United States. If you have symptoms of vision loss or if you haven't seen an eye doctor in a while, contact North Florida's cataract and eye care specialists today at 352-373-4300. Early diagnosis of DR and timely treatment reduce the risk of vision loss; however, up to 50% of patients do not have their eyes examined or are diagnosed too late for treatment to be effective. Glaucoma is a group of diseases that can damage the eye's optic nerve and cause vision loss and blindness.

Cataracts are a very common eye problem and generally affect more than half of all Americans over the age of 65. . .

Briana Amass
Briana Amass

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